Automation of virtualized network function (VNF) and application service life cycle management is fundamental both to delivering new services and value faster and to improving operational efficiency for cloud-based application services. While automated mechanisms can dramatically reduce the risk of human error risk (Table 22.4), the mechanisms that execute automated life cycle management actions are inevitably imperfect and will occasionally fail to perform flawlessly. Life cycle management (execution) risks cover the hazards that prevent syntactically and semantically correct life cycle management actions for cloud-based application services from being completed successfully.