The People’s Republic of China, hereafter referred to simply as China, is situated in the eastern part of Asia, on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. China is the world’s most populous and the third largest country next only to Russia and Canada. Most of China is located in the temperate zone. Some parts of south China are located in tropical and subtropical zones, while the northern part is near the frigid zone. Politically, China is under the leadership of the Communist Party and its administration is based on a three-level system dividing the nation into administrative units of three different sizes: provinces, counties, and townships. This chapter provides general information about China’s geography, population and ethnic groups, language, religion, education system, political structure, and a brief overview of her modern history.