Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, and distribution. Biological surface science is broadly defined as an interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic material and biological environments are investigated and bifunctional surfaces are fabricated. Surfaces play a vital role in biology and medicine, with most reactions occurring at surfaces and interfaces. The advancement in surface science instrumentation that has occurred in the past quarter of a century has significantly increased our ability to characterize the surface composition and molecular structure of biomaterials. Similar advancement has been shown in material science and molecular biology. The combinations of these subjects have allowed us to obtain a detailed understanding of how the surface properties of a material can control the biological reactivity of a cell interacting with that surface. Main examples include: medical implants in human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnosis, tissue engineering, bioelectronics and biomagnetics materials, and artificial photo synthesis.