This chapter illustrates on nonrenewable energy and how it has been a key part of our lives—and lifestyles—for a long time now. We will begin by explaining about crude oil and petroleum products and the critical roles of gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, hydrocarbon gas, and natural gas. We will then read about coal and the issues associated with it. Subsequently, we will take a look at the nuclear industry, what it takes to make energy in those environments, and our utilization of them. We will also look at other less-developed forms of fossil energy—tar sands and oil shale—and what lies ahead for them.