As we mentioned in the Preface, this book describes some of the work carried out by the authors and their co-authors in the period 2011-2017. Our objective in writing this book, and in much of our other work, was not to focus on the details of EV propulsion mechanisms (this is covered in detail elsewhere), but rather to focus on the opportunities of the new networked actuation possibilities afforded by FEVs and PHEVs in our cities. While we have included many use cases to illustrate this point, others, which we believe to be important, are omitted due to space limitations, such as [81,91]. In particular, the migration of ideas to PEDELECS, and the focus on protecting cyclists, would appear to be a very fruitful and useful direction for future research; see [178] for some initial ideas in this direction.