ABSTRACT

The wake-up call identifying the need for prison crisis negotiation teams was the September 1971 disaster at Attica. Interestingly, the Munich Olympics in September of 1972 served as the wake-up call for law enforcement. In each incident hostages died who, given what we know now, should not have been killed. In each incident, experience and good intelligence were lacking. In addition, command decisions were wrong, tactical maneuvers inappropriate, and effective crisis negotiations tactics and techniques non-existent.