The first successful brachytherapy treatment for cancer was in 1903 in St. Petersburg by Goldberg and London^ who treated two patients with facial basal cell carcinoma. Radium brachytherapy has already been referred to in previous chapters, such as the earliest radium applicators of Wickham and Degrais^, Paris, 1904, [3.16]; the first international radium standard, 1912, [3.15]; and a chart [18.9] detailing progress in both brachytherapy and teletherapy; and in Chapter 23 some of the early hazards in the use of radium and early radiation protection practices are featured.