Angiography had its inception in the researches of Egaz Moniz in Lisbon^, with, for example, his papers on 'Arterial encephalography: importance in the localisa­ tion of cerebral tumours’ in 1927 and 'Angiopneumonography’ in 1931, although there were other seminal papers of the period, such as 'Catheterisation of the right heart’ by Werner Forssmann in 1929 and 'Experimental cardiac ventriculography’ by Henri Reboul and Maurice Racine in 1933.