American Medical Association their method of gall­ bladder diagnosis using intravenous injection of tetrabromophenolphthalein, gallbladder studies were by ordinary radiograph, although these were supplemented in some cases by the injection of air or of opaque material into the stomach, duodenum and colon. Kirklin"^ described Graham’s 1931 reminiscences in his paper 'Background and beginning of cholecystectomy ’.