The phenomena which are principally responsible for the interaction of radiation with matter in everyday life are absorption and spontaneous emis sion. Light falling on matter is absorbed, leaving atoms in excited states which spontaneously emit radiation with a spread of frequency inversely proportional to the decay time. The situation is modified when the atomic decay times are sufficiently long and the radiation sufficiently intense, for then radiation may fall on excited atoms, resulting in stimulated emission rather than absorption. We saw in Chap. 2 that this third process was required to obtain the Planck blackbody radiation law in Einstein’s derivation. It is stimulated emission which enables an atomic medium to amplify incident radiation, and therefore is an essential ingredient in light amplifiers and oscillators. In fact, the word LASER is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.