12 A 7-year-old female spayed English Bull terrier presents with an overnight history of acute vomiting and lethargy. She is up-to-date on all vaccinations. The dog has vomited at least four times overnight and is anorexic. On physical examination, she is icteric. Her owner reports that she has had previous bouts of gastroenteritis after digging in their garden and scavenging garbage. Pertinent results from clinical biochemistry are provided.

i. How do you interpret the clinical chemistry results provided? What are some differential diagnoses you are considering?

ii. What is the serum half-life of alanine transaminase in the dog and how does this differ from the cat?

iii. What are the three basic mechanisms for the development of icterus? Which do you think is most important in this case?

https://www.niso.org/standards/z39-96/ns/oasis-exchange/table"> Analyte SI Units Conventional Units Result Ref Range Result Ref Range BUN/Urea 9 (2.5–9) µmol/L 25.2 (7–25.2) mg/dL Creatinine 110 (48–109) µmol/L 1.2 (0.5–1.2) mg/dL Cholesterol 10.8 (3.27–9.82) mmol/L 415.4 (125.8–377.7) mg/dL Total protein 49 (54–74) g/L 4.9 (5.4–7.4) g/dL Albumin 31 (33–44) g/L 3.1 (3.3–4.4) g/dL Total bilirubin 18 (1–3) µmol/L 1.1 (0.1–0.2) mg/dL Creatine kinase 467 (0–385) U/L Alk. phos 1944 (0–87) U/L ALT 9378 (0–88) U/L AST 11973 (0–51) U/L Na+ 151 (141–153) mmol/L (mEq/dL) K+ 3.8 (4–5.4) mmol/L (mEq/dL) Calcium 2.6 (2.08–2.82) mmol/L 10.42 (8.34–11.3) mg/dL Phosphorus 1.25 (0.92–1.82) mmol/L 3.87 (2.85–5.63) mg/dL