Soil properties are so essential for all aspects of soil use and management. Furthermore, soil formation processes and the resulting soil properties can significantly affect crop growth. Therefore, they need to be properly monitored to avoid destroying this essential building block of our environment and our food security. The formation and properties of soils are key areas of research in the soil science discipline. In this chapter, we first discuss the soil forming factors and processes. Then, we list and define the basic soil properties and understand the relationships between these properties. Continuous monitoring of the soil properties in agricultural fields allows better management of soils.