Coastal regions are very rich in soil and water resources with ecological, economic, and social significance. These regions are fragile and vulnerable to climate change as well. The coastal regions of the world are typically different from each other with respect to climate conditions, geography, and agro-ecological conditions. However, all coastal regions are suffering from climate change. Addressing the issues pertaining to natural soil and water resources and agricultural production in the coastal regions requires assessment of the existing resources. This book analyzed properties of coastal soil and water resources, climate conditions, climate change aspects, water resources deterioration, and land degradation processes. Based on the findings of this book, coastal regions are highly affected by climate change, and these impacts will continue to affect coastal areas in a variety of aspects. These aspects include rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), increased air temperature, changes in rainfall patterns, droughts, floods, ocean acidification, and sea level rise. Furthermore, various soil management practices such as agroforestry, cultivation of perennial crops, and reducing tillage, have a great potential to sequester carbon and reverse the carbon enrichment of the atmosphere. However, this potential of soil carbon sequestration may be restricted in practice due to landscape variability and the effects of atmospheric change and climate warming. Despite these restrictions, the benefits of increasing soil organic carbon sequestration, even on a limited basis, are very important for maintaining and enhancing agricultural productivity and supporting vital ecosystem services and should be supported through advanced research initiatives.