The purpose of the soil test is to obtain the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of the soil sample. The experimentally obtained indexes can be used for theoretical analysis of soil mechanics and practical application of engineering. Chemical measurements of soil include determination of pH, soluble salts and organic content. Since ASTM does not include soil chemistry testing, this chapter only compares and analyzes the differences between GB and BS. In general, BS uses a more convenient method than GB in most chemical tests. Physical measurements of soil include determination of water content, density, specific gravity, particle size distribution, relative density, and California Bearing Ratio. The procedures for these tests are easier to follow in ASTM and BS than in GB. Mechanical measurements of soil include permeability, compaction characteristics, determination of consolidation properties, swelling ratio and pressure, simple and reversal direct shear, and unconfined and triaxial compression tests. For these tests, requirements from GB are strict while those in ASTM and BS are relatively flexible.