## ABSTRACT

To determine https://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> ∫ 1 a cos θ + b sin θ + c dθ https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429294402/7a019bd2-8e3e-42f5-a1b0-42593cc08f27/content/eq4015.tif" xmlns:xlink="https://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"/> , where a, b and c are constants, if https://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> t = tan θ 2 https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429294402/7a019bd2-8e3e-42f5-a1b0-42593cc08f27/content/eq4016.tif" xmlns:xlink="https://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"/> then: () https://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> sin θ = 2 t ( 1 + t 2 ) https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429294402/7a019bd2-8e3e-42f5-a1b0-42593cc08f27/content/eq4017.tif" xmlns:xlink="https://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"/> () https://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> cos θ = 1 − t 2 1 + t 2 https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429294402/7a019bd2-8e3e-42f5-a1b0-42593cc08f27/content/eq4018.tif" xmlns:xlink="https://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"/> () https://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> dθ = 2 dt 1 + t 2 https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429294402/7a019bd2-8e3e-42f5-a1b0-42593cc08f27/content/eq4019.tif" xmlns:xlink="https://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"/>