A system is constructed to realize the automatic grading of pear’s appearance quality based on computer vision, which involves both hardware and software programs. It includes transport unit, control module, image acquisition module, and image processing and recognition module. It can perform automatic feature extraction. The features of identification include shape, color, and defect. According to the influence of spots on pear’s surface on the defect detection, a spot removal method based on V component’s dynamic threshold is put forward. According to the national standards, grading rules of fruit type and defect levels based on the above features are constructed. Furthermore, a grading model of pear is also constructed based on artificial neural network. The recognition rate of 630 images of pear reaches up to 90.3%. The system, equipment, and method in this chapter have a positive significance to online grading of pear’s quality of appearance.