ABSTRACT

Banana production in the humid tropics and subtropics is an increasing (Figure 16.1) year-round activity on small, medium and large-sized farms (FAO 2004a), some of which are found on steep slopes of the rugged Caribbean, Latin American (FAO 2016) and Southeast Asian countries, with bananas also serving as an important food crop in much of Africa (Ekesa et al. 2013). Destructive winds for banana trees fall into two categories: tropical cyclones and/or extratropical cyclones affecting plantations (Figure 16.2) in the Caribbean, northern Southeast Asia (FAO 2013) and northern Australia, particularly in maritime locations. To reduce losses, plantations apply stick braces (Huizen 2014) made of bamboo in some locations, based on bamboo’s high tensile strength. However, in many locations, sticks from slower-growing, trees, rather than bamboos, are used (Figures 16.3 and 16.4), thereby promoting deforestation. World banana production. https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429284847/71734880-d834-4b80-8c70-1e2fa9ed5074/content/fig16_1_C.tif"/> Source: FAO 2004a. Wind damage to a banana farm. https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429284847/71734880-d834-4b80-8c70-1e2fa9ed5074/content/fig16_2_C.jpg"/> Stick braces used for banana trees can cause widespread local deforestation, exacerbating depletion of tropical forests. https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429284847/71734880-d834-4b80-8c70-1e2fa9ed5074/content/fig16_3_C.jpg"/> Large FHIA banana fruit sometimes require stout braces to preclude tree fall. https://s3-euw1-ap-pe-df-pch-content-public-u.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/9780429284847/71734880-d834-4b80-8c70-1e2fa9ed5074/content/fig16_4_C.jpg"/>