The effectiveness and efficiency of all mining operations, and therefore the associated risks, are dependent on correct and meaningful sampling of orebodies and surrounding rock. Sampling is important across the entire mining cycle, from exploration, production (grade control), processing (metallurgy) through to environmental purposes, and there are significant costs to the bottom line of a company associated with poor sampling (Carrasco et al., 2004; Dominy, 2016). Although no national or international standard on sampling exists, the Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) Code and other international equivalents do require reporting of sampling issues and ongoing Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC). Accordingly, there is a need for all technical personnel engaged in the mining chain to understand the science behind sampling and the correct selection of sampling equipment and its use, so as to minimise the errors resulting from it. It is also imperative for mining and exploration company management to appreciate the importance and contribution of correct (and incorrect) sampling to the improvement of the overall cost and intangible benefits to the mining operations of the organisation.