As mentioned in the Executive Summary, in Section 1.5, and deeply analyzed in Section 2, one of the main focuses of this book is on the use of a design and construction approach that minimizes the risks during tunnelling in urban areas. According to this approach, the first step to developing an urban tunnel is to begin with the risk analysis for the project in question, starting from the early planning and design phases and considering all potential hazards, especially those relevant to the construction.