In this chapter we introduce a number of data-analytic procedures derived from the normal distribution theory of Chapter 6. Like most procedures based on normal theory, they depend on the values of the sample means, variances and covariances, and so have a heuristic attraction independent of the distributional assumptions. Thus, it could be argued that these procedures are useful methods for the analysis of any data, although, of course, significance levels are only valid when the distributional assumptions apply.