Endemic rabies transmitted from dog to dog is maintained in urban centers, and the disease cycles in those cities and extends out from them. 1 3 It is a paradox that although the earliest control of canine rabies was achieved in urban communities, 4 , 5 most canine rabies is still found in urban centers. Rabies outbreaks in 18th century Europe were widespread in England, Spain, France, Italy, and as far east as Czechoslovakia; 6 during this time there was widespread destruction of dogs in cities, and laws were passed that required responsible dog control. 5 Rabies outbreaks continued throughout Europe in the 19th century, but urban dog control began in Germany, Belgium, the Scandinavian countries, and England. England (except for an area in Wales) first became free of the disease in 1899 and remained so until 1918, when a rabid dog was illegally brought from the continent. The country was again declared free of rabies in 1922. 7 Ireland has been free of rabies since 1903. 5