T ropical forests have been one of Indonesia’s most important naturalresources, contributing substantially to export earnings, employment,and the livelihood of local people. Roughly 300,000 people are employed in the wood-processing sector and at least 14 million are in some way directly dependent on the forest for their living. Forest products accounted for more than 11% of export earnings during 1994-1999. Although it is clear that forests have contributed substantially to the economic and social wellbeing of Indonesia’s people, these benefits have been produced without due regard for forest sustainability. Also, a small political and economic elite have manipulated policy for their own benefit. As forest cover declines, the underappreciated local, national, and international ecological benefits of these forests are also lost (Scotland et al. 2000).