In the preceding chapters of this book we have examined three decades ofthe centralized nature of forest management in Indonesia. This charac-teristic of forest management mirrored the operational style of the Indonesian government during the same period. That is, decisionmaking authority over most aspects of policy was largely in the hands of the central government. The first day of 2001, however, marked a momentous change in Indonesian history-the authority or power over a significant chunk of decisionmaking for a number of responsibilities was formally transferred to local governments.