In 1997-1998, an estimated 5.2 million ha of East Kalimantan went upin smoke (Hoffman et al. 1999).1 This area was 2 million ha more thanthe area that burned in the 1982-1983 fires (Mayer 1996; Sakuntaladewi and Amblani 1989). Both burns were related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. There is also evidence that disastrous burns like those in 1982-1983 and in 1997-1998 degrade the landscape in such a way that future fires are liable to occur again and are likely to be more severe (King 1996; Mori 2000; Nepstad et al. 1999; Nicolas and Beebe 1999).