Indonesia experienced extensive fires during 1997-1998 that burned vasttracts of forest and forestland, especially on the islands of Borneo andSumatra. These forest and land fires and the accompanying smoke caused (a) serious damage to the forest areas, (b) air pollution, (c) damage to public health, (d) loss of life, (e) destruction of property and livelihood options, and (f ) other substantial economic losses in much of southern Southeast Asia. There are various opinions among institutions and others about the area of land burned in forest fires and other land fires during that period. Estimates range from a low of several hundred thousand hectares to a high of many millions of hectares (ADB 1999; Barber and Schweithelm 2000).