THE EIGHT CASE studies and twelve analyses in this volume traverse awide range of issues pertaining to the five challenges of adaptive governance: representation, deliberative process design, scientific learning, public learning, and problem responsiveness. This final chapter speculates about the future of adaptive governance. It summarizes findings about the five challenges, suggests some characteristics of an institutional framework that might serve the experimental needs of twenty-first-century water policy, and considers the role of adaptive governance in the overall governance of water and other natural resources.