Sugar cane has been a major world crop for centuries, primarily as a source of sugar and other derivatives, but nowadays its importance has increased significantly because of its potential contribution to energy supply. This chapter focuses exclusively on the potential of sugar cane for commercial energy production and the international ethanol trade, putting emphasis on the implications for expanding bioenergy from sugar cane in Africa. The chapter considers the global potential of ethanol and the contribution from cane resources, the environmental benefits from cane energy such as GHG mitigation and favourable energy balance, the current situation and future scenarios for ethanol production and use, the status and potential of sugar cane bagasse cogeneration for electricity export, and the role of the international bioethanol fuel trade in the consolidation of the biofuel market, particularly in respect to prospects in Africa.