The need to develop policies that enhance the provision of ecosystem goods and services from plantation forests has emerged in parallel with the rise of plantation forests as both a land use and source of industrial wood supply. The history of plantation forestry has been characterized by policies that focused on expanding the plantation estate for wood production rather than for a wider set of values and outcomes. Many of the plantation forests established under these policies replaced native or managed ecosystems with little regard for the wider consequences, and in doing so have frequently diminished, rather than enhanced, the output of ecosystem goods and services at both landscape and stand scales. There are also, however, contrary examples, which are consistent with an ecosystem approach to sustainability and the principles of sustainable forest management.