Honest and effective risk communication is an important prerequisite for promoting the necessary institutional means for international cooperation and trust building. Informing the public in all affected countries may

help to clarify the issues involved, but it cannot resolve international conflicts about risks, particularly if benefits and risks are distributed unequally among the affected populations. Furthermore, cultural differences, differences in legal and political traditions, and divergent value commitments and interests of the general public tend to lead to intense conflicts between national governments and between the affected populations on both sides of the national boundaries. Resolving these conflicts necessitates a process in which stakeholders and affected citizens are given the opportunity to take part in the decision. Cooperation of citizens beyond national boundaries is a rarely disputed goal among risk managers (Fiorino, 1990; Renn et al., 1993). There is, however, a controversy about the desirable structure and appropriate process of participation. Furthermore, the role of the public and its mandate in decision-making processes are highly debated (Dienel, 1978; Barber, 1983; Pollak, 1985; Lynn, 1986; Kasperson, 1986; Chen and Mathes, 1989; Fiorino, 1989; Renn et al., 1991). In addition, the legal and political regulations with respect to transboundary risks leave little space for extended cross-national participation projects. Are there any means available to address these transboundary risks in a democratic fashion? Is it possible to involve citizens in a decision-making process that spans national boundaries?