What do coca growers marching in Colombia, communities struggling over property rights in Timor-Leste, and Somali clans disputing charcoal rents have in common? These diverse struggles are all examples of failures to adequately consider social identity in post-conflict natural resource management (PCNRM). This chapter examines how links between social identity, natural resources, and armed conflicts affect peacebuilding and PCNRM. It outlines ways in which social identities are mobilized in conflicts in which resources have political and cultural values. It argues that, contrary to popular perceptions of ancient identities locked in conflicts, social identities are flexibly constructed and linked to natural resources through both individual actor decisions and elite manipulation of political discourses. In conclusion, it proposes a framework for understanding how links between social identities and natural resources may influence PCNRM and, ultimately, peacebuilding processes.