In order to support climate adaptation, development and natural resource management practices ‘on the ground’ in a way that is sensitive to local conditions, we need to understand not only the biophysical nature of the changes that people face, but also the factors affecting people’s vulnerability to these changes. In this chapter we use the case of a community living in the mountainous Maluti region of Lesotho, a small landlocked country in Southern Africa, to illustrate various aspects of vulnerability. To frame vulnerability, we draw upon earlier work compiled in Downing et al (2006), introduced in the following section.