In the previous section we presented innovations that, together or in isolation, facilitate enhanced biomass application and replacement of fossil oil. Be it for biofuels, production of other energy carriers, of chemicals or other materials, utilization of biomass feedstocks will alter the production process. In Chapters 4 and 6, we showed how biomass availability is determined by limitations of crop growth, inputs use and crop production systems; these limitations are basically dictated by biophysical and economic laws. Thus, if we want to assess the role of biomass in the replacement of fossil oil, we need to look further than biophysical sciences alone.