Connectivity areas include some of the last large-scale natural areas of Earth. They are multi-purpose areas of immense value to people and other species and typically they are: highly aesthetic; destinations for recreation; of great value as water catchments; and offer temporary or permanent habitats for species and opportunities for their movement. However, outside of the legally conserved core protected areas, they are highly vulnerable to a tyranny of small development decisions that incrementally could mean protected areas become isolated in a modified landscape. Concerted action involving many people and governments will be needed to retain these naturally interconnected lands for the long term. Connectivity conservation management is

needed in the face of forecast futures. This simple challenge is not an over reaction. Without intervention, the reality of past and forecast human behaviour identifies the inevitable fragmentation and loss of natural lands and their ecosystem services. The end result would be an unhealthy and less diverse world. For many areas of Earth, however, we still have a choice: a worldwide network of large-scale natural connectivity conservation lands with their associated interconnected and embedded protected areas would constitute an investment in the survival of many species and a better future for the planet and the people who live on it. The case studies, management framework and practices presented in this book aim to facilitate this work.