This chapter provides a synthetic account of the history and current status of Chinese water and sanitation services (WSS), including a consideration of the main problems and potential solutions facing the sector, with a special focus on urban areas. We present, first, a brief background description of the situation of WSS in the country, dealing with basic information about coverage and a reference to the main institutional and legal structures in relation to the management of these services. Then we consider the case of drinking water supply and explore the situation in the Chinese capital as an example of the problems and challenges facing the country in this particular area. The last section focuses on wastewater collection and treatment.