Singapore is an island nation situated 137 kilometers north of the equator and separated by the Straits of Johor from the southern tip of the peninsular Malaysia. Singapore’s total land area of 647.5 square meters is made up of one main island and a few smaller islands. Peninsular Malaysia, known as Malaya before the formation of Malaysia in 1963, and Singapore were administered by the British until Malaya attained independence in 1957 and Singapore became a self-governing state in 1963.