Real-world intellectual problem-solving operates in concert with motivational and emotional processes, sometimes harmoniously and sometimes discordantly. Our aim in this chapter is to explore the nature of systematic individual differences in the process of solving problems posed by adaptation to life challenges. We focus on personality as a systematic influence on cognition, motivation and affect, in line with Kihlstrom and Cantor’s (2000) suggestion that personality represents social intelligence. That is, personality reflects the cognitive structures that guide the individual’s interpersonal behavior in solving the problems of everyday social life. As Kihlstrom and Cantor (2000) stated, social behavior is intelligent: cognitive processes of perception, memory, and reasoning support progress toward personal goals.