The attacks by the Indonesian paramilitaries on the people of East Timor in September of 1999 created mass displacement, destroyed most homes and property, and amplified poverty and hunger nationwide. The brutality of the attacks, which followed decades of oppression of the East Timorese and the betrayal of the UN referendum process for safe elections, created emotional and social wounds that needed to be addressed as part of the peace building agenda. Children and youth1 were at significant risk for a number of negative outcomes. Children were largely unsupervised, as schools had been destroyed and parents were consumed with procuring basic necessities, and were at risk for physical injury from mines and broken glass while playing and scavenging in dangerous buildings and streets. Youth, who had played a key role in

the liberation struggle but had few prospects for jobs or positive life options, were frustrated, alienated, and at risk for engaging in delinquent and violent behavior. Both children and youth were at risk for disease and bad health from lack of shelter, as well as the emotional distress that accompanies homelessness.