Index-finger pointing is a means of making definite reference that is intimately linked to gesture and speech. This chapter examines evidence for its species specificity to humans, considers the development of pointing in babies, and offers some evidence for the universality of the gesture at least in its earliest form. First, it is necessary to describe the typical posture of the hand in pointing to avoid confusion with other indicative gestures and to define it precisely. In pointing, the index finger and arm are extended in the direction of the interesting object, whereas the remaining fingers are curled under the hand, with the thumb held down and to the side (Fig. 2.1). The orientation of the hand, either palm downward or rotated so the palm is vertical with respect to the body midline, may also be significant in further differentiating subtypes of indexical pointing (see also Kendon, chap. 6, this volume).