We are interested in how college students cope with the academic demands made on them-how they manage all of their courses at once! As metacog­ nitive theorists, we come to this task with certain strong assumptions (Flavell, R Miller, & S. Miller, 1993, chapter 7). We assume that studying and time management involve at least some use of strategies and are affected by student prior knowledge related to the content of courses. Metacogni­ tion, which is knowledge and beliefs about thinking and the factors affecting thinking, regulates the articulation of strategies and knowledge. Yes, some use of study strategies and application of prior knowledge during study probably are automatized and occur without conscious regulation, but a great deal of studying and academic self-management involves conscious decision making and self-regulation. When that is the case, students’ knowledge and beliefs about when and where to use various strategies is a primary determinant of how students tackle academic demands. Motivation also plays a role, with student cognition very much a function of whether

and when students expect to be rewarded for exerting academic effort (Borkowski, Carr, Rellinger, & Pressley, 1990; Dweck, 1986; Dweck & Leggett, 1988). Because studying does involve conscious decision making, we assume that students are aware of many of the factors affecting their motivation, with their conscious reward expectancies playing a large role in their academic decision making.