In and of itself, the topic of bilingualism-individuals’ knowledge and use of two languages-has provoked considerable controversy in the political, psychological, and educational arenas. Prior to the 1960s, bilingualism was commonly viewed in a negative light (see Crawford, 1993; Hakuta, 1986). Politicians, such as Teddy Roosevelt, educators, and even researchers (Smith, 1931) reported that bilingualism could cause delays, interference, and confusion in children’s language acquisition or learning. In stark con trast to these earlier views, more recent scholarship suggests that certain types of bilingualism can result in enhanced cognitive development (for reviews, see Bialystok, 1991; Hakuta, 1986). A major focus of this more positive portrayal of bilingualism has been the metalinguistic awareness (ability to define and control language processes) that bilinguals develop. In studying childhood bilingualism, many researchers focus on “whether or not bilingualism affects the way in which children process language and the insights which they subsequently derive about the structure of language” (Bialystok, 1991, p. 7).