This chapter examines the implications of societal transformations, and consequent disruptions in system legitimacy for the social-psychological principles used in arriving at assessments of economic justice. Data from the ISJP are used to test several hypotheses, based on theories of justice evaluation, regarding the determinants of justice perceptions. We present data on national differences in a range of beliefs about economic inequality, developing the concept of economic system legitimacy, analyzing data from all twelve countries. Differences on this dimension between the populations of countries in Central and Eastern Europe and those of the West are examined in both indicators reflecting macroperceptions of social inequality and microperceptions of family needs and morale with respect to income receipts and standard of living. We examine the extent to which these national differences translate into macrolevel beliefs regarding principles of just distribution and support for economic distributive systems. As we will show, in Eastern Europe there is considerable ideological inconsistency, given the lack of support for the legitimacy of the current system of distributive justice. Despite the favorability to markets and the overwhelming rejection of socialism, and where guaranteed minimum and maximum income policies are still popular, social stratification and social inequality are becoming increasingly desirable. By focusing on the differential predictability in perceptions of justice across nations, we can examine the extent to which principles of justice evaluation vary by the nature of differences in perceived system legitimacy.