This chapter has four main aims. First of all, it explains the specific goals of the Productive Welfare approach with respect to the National Pension Scheme. Secondly, it outlines the recent changes made to the National Pension Scheme, some of which were designed to make it both more universal and equitable. Thirdly, the chapter considers the strengths and weakness of the current approach to pensions for private sector employees and the self-employed. Finally, some suggestions are made for possible future policy directions. The assessment contained in this chapter is based on the relatively limited information available and without the advantages of close first-hand examination of the operation of the National Pension Scheme or questioning anyone with responsibility for managing it and, therefore, must be regarded as a preliminary appraisal. 1