The issue of efficient action in social work can constitute a major challenge, so big is the current crisis in that sector, both in respect of the issue of its purpose and that of the relevance of its implementation methods. If praxeology is a process that is intended to make action aware, self-sufficient, thought out and efficient, it appears that in that area, it is mandatory, like in other areas and even more than in other areas, because of the complexity and emergency of situations. This text first indicates the meaning of the term social work in France and then shows how too often a professional’s action is only thought out on the basis of his interpersonal skills with the user. Finally, the issue of efficiency cannot in that respect overlook the issue of meaning, and the issue of meaning cannot overlook the issue of the framework on the basis of which action is considered.