In recent years studies of political development have dealt with two very different concepts: the problem of creating and institutionalizing a viable new political system, on the one hand, and that of adapting an existing political system to a complex modern world, on the other. Evaluation of these phenomena has been complicated by the fact that both have been termed “political development.” It is even more difficult because both tasks have been thrust simultaneously upon many of the so-called “emerging” or “third world” nations. In a practical as well as in a theoretical sense, therefore, it has become almost impossible to separate the two phenomena.