The congress, which provides the central focus for the issues and debates to be examined in this article, is an appropriate subject for inclusion in a volume dedicated to Werner J. Cahnman. Attended by Ferdinand Toennies, the congress has implications both for the historical understanding of the social sciences and the attempt of twentieth century Jews to understand and affirm their identity. Both of these concerns have figured prominently in the professional and humanistic endeavors of Professor Cahnman.