In general, the behavior therapy model conceptualizes neurotic or maladaptive behavior as learned behavior, not as a manifestation of a mental illness. Treatment tends to focus on the “unlearning” or “relearning” of specific habit patterns and may take place in one or more of the following ways: (a) by the direct manipulation of environmental reinforcement contingencies (Ayllon and Haughton, 1962; Ayllon and Michael, 1959), (b) by direct counterconditioning and/or extinction procedures (Wolpe, 1958), or (c) by the provision of more appropriate social role models (Bandura, 1963).