The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to outline the political analysis elaborated by the Austrian legation in Prague and to show how the Austrian legation assessed the process, chances, and perils of the Prague Spring; this information is based on the ‘political reports’ to the Ballhausplatz (Austrian ministry of foreign affairs), recently made accessible in the Austrian State Archives. Second, this paper will show what impact the intervention of the “socialist brother countries,” led by the Soviet Union, had on Czechoslovak-Austrian relations—with special focus on the actions of the legation in Prague in the crucial months of August and September and their consequences. 1