Can recent structuralist developments in anthropological sciences (such as linguistics, ethnology, and so on) have a bearing on the methodology of biology? I believe this to be so; after evaluating the proper task of structuralism, its aim, its limits, we shall see how its prospective application to biology lies between the old, Linnean type of biology, descriptive and taxonomic, and modern biology (molecular biology, physiology, ecology) of a more reductionist, explanatory nature.