Since the end of World War II, the center of gravity of world Jewry has moved outside Europe. It is now located within the bipolar relationship between American Jewry, the largest and most dynamic of diaspora communities, and the State of Israel. During this period, European Jewry, with the notable exception of France, has undergone continuing contraction through large-scale emigration and assimilation. There are, however, indications of cultural renewal and community reorganization. These developments are internally driven as well as supported by Israeli and American-based Jewish organizations committed to the continuity and vitality of Jewish life in Europe.