AMONG THE MOST often-cited principles of industrial ecology are ‘dematerialisation’ and ‘decarbonisation’—using fewer raw materials and contributing less to global warming (cf. Ausubel 1994). Environmentalists around the world have argued that pulp and paper manufacturing can become more ecological by using more post-consumer waste paper, logging fewer native forests and producing less waste (cf. Kroesa 1991; TWS 1992; WALHI and YLBH 1992; Smith 1997).